Traditionally, localised surface plasmon resonance, LSPR, spectroscopy sensing surfaces are produced with a highly specific functionalised layer atop a plasmonic nanostructure. Here we present that by removing this functionalisation, not only is the diffculty of the fabrication procedure reduced, but the ‘naked’ plasmonic nanoparticle template is still able to act as a high quality optical sensing surface for detecting the surface abundance of a lead salt, showing a clear and measurable shift to the optical response of the template from as little as 0:0001at% or 100ppm.The increased desire for exible devises is driving a need to be able to fabricate a high quality micro and nano structures on flexible substrates. This research describes a methodology for the laser fabrication of a plasmonic nanoparticle template on a polymer substrate by modifying the polymer surface to increase the surface roughness of the polymer substrate and the inclusion of a silicon dioxide interlayer between the polymer and the metallic thin film.
The Earth only crosses the plane of Venus’s orbit twice a year, in June and December, due to the angle between the two planets’ orbits. A transit doesn’t occur every six months because both planets need to be lined up exactly, and Venus’s orbit around the Sun (its year) is shorter than the Earth’s (224.7 days compared to 365.3). Venus transits occur in pairs with an intervening gap of eight years and intervals of 121.5 and 105.5 years between the pairs of transits..
Scientists can infer the size of a solar system object by its brightness, just as one can infer the size of a faraway light bulb if one knows its wattage. The reflectance of the planet is not yet known. Scientists can not yet tell how much light from the sun is reflected away, but the amount of light the planet reflects puts a lower limit on its size..
Et je l’accepte. Mais l est bien la preuve que je ne prche pas seulement aux convertis. Comme mon discours est entendu partout, je deviens dangereux aux yeux des gens de la droite.. The BBC reports that the last sitting US President to receive the award was Woodrow Wilson. While his heart may have been in the right place when creating the League of Nations (though after reading Keynes Economic Consequences of the Peace I not even sure of that any more), a lot went wrong with it later on. Like WWII,.
This year the Royal Australasian College of Physicians, which represents 14,000 doctors from Australia and New Zealand, called for it to be made illegal for parents to physically punish their children. RACP says compelling evidence reveals long term negative effects of physical punishment. Here is their position statement if you care to read it..